Land surveys are fundamental for the design and construction of particular aspects like roads, buildings, etc. Land surveys are done to mark boundaries, map the topography of land, create elevations for buildings to ward off floods, to ascertain that buildings have been constructed as per particular recommendations, to map river bottoms for dredging, layout photo control for aerial photography, map the layout of tunnels, airports, and so much more.
All land surveying activities must be done accurately to achieve the best results. Surveyors, therefore, need to use particular equipment to carry out their tasks and they may include:
GPS equipment- It is used to take variations in height between two points, their distance and directions by contacting the satellite.
Tripod equipment- Tripods are used to support surveying instruments such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits. It ought to be stable because when it is moved, it must be reset and a survey repeated. Tripod equipment can get waterlogged and produce inaccurate results, so their material should be carefully selected.
Measurement equipment- A measuring wheel is the most commonly used. It is usually revolved along a particular distance while an odometer counts its revolutions.
Theodolites- They are used to realize horizontal and vertical angles, elevation and height.
Laser levels- They produce beams of light that are used to test elevation. They are used for diverse tasks that are essential during construction. They can be either manual or self-level. Self-level lasers find their own levels independently, while manual lasers require being adjusted while in use.
Laser receivers- They are combined with laser levels to cover wider areas during land surveys. The laser receivers detect beams of light from the laser levels and adjust respectively until the desired level is achieved then make a sound. They are helpful to make the use of laser levels outside and on very sunny days easier.
Single or dual grade lasers- They are utilized when slopes require being assessed. The single grade laser only calculates gradient for one particular plane, while dual grade lasers can calculate the gradient of two planes at once.
Rotating and straight line lasers- Rotating lasers give off beams of laser light from a beacon that evaluate an area across 360 degrees, while straight line lasers are used to generate crosses or plumb lines.
Pipe lasers- This type is used when new pipes, drains, or sewers are being installed. When a pipe is placed in a trench, they are used to determine the accurate placement of the rest of the pipes on the same line and gradient.